抽象名词既具备高度概括性,那么也可以在写作中照应语篇,也就是作为cohesive devices之一:reference

示例一:同形回指

It is important for children to learn the difference between right and wrong at an early age. Punishment is necessary to help them learn the difference between right and wrong at an early age. (改自C10)

重复处:the difference between right and wrong at an early age

思考:直接用抽象名词difference,也可换用同义词distinction

加入抽象名词后:… Punishment is necessary to help them learn this distinction.

示例二:同形回指

One important stage in a child’s growth is certainly the development of conscience, which is linked to the ability to tell right from wrong. comes with time and good parenting, … (改自C10)

思考:用什么抽象名词回指?回指哪部分?

加入抽象名词后:… This skill comes with time and good parenting, …

示例三:概述回指

Once the age of reason is reached however, a child can be rewarded for good behavior and discouraged from bad. will achieve more than harsh punishment, which might entail many negative consequences unintended by the parents. (改自C10)

思考:用什么抽象名词回指?回指哪部分?

选一个抽象名词照应上一句:… This kind but firm approach will achieve more than harsh punishment, …

示例四:概述回指

There are, however, some disadvantages. Primary school teachers are generalists, and may not have the necessary language skills themselves. If specialists have to be brought in to deliver these sessions, the flexibility referred to above is diminished. If primary language teaching is not standardised, secondary schools could be faced with a greater variety of levels in different language within their intake, resulting in a classroom experience which undoes the earlier gains. There is no advantage if enthusiastic primary pupils become demotivated as soon as they change schools, However, can be addressed strategically within the policy adopted. (改自C9)

思考:用什么抽象名词可以回指前文所有内容?

加入抽象名词后:… However, these issues can be addressed strategically within the policy adopted.

总结

用抽象名词照应上文时,通常都要带上this, that, these, those, such等,具备极强的衔接式前指性噢~

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