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雅思阅读中段落意题怎么解决?

来源:未知

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时间:2020-01-07

如何解决雅思阅读段落大意题?List of headings 是雅思阅读中常考的段落大意题,主要考察学生对段落的总结归纳能力。下面为大家介绍如何解决雅思阅读段落大意题,希望大家能及时关注。

大部分同学对于这种题型有两大头疼的问题:

1. 耗费时间太长,因为选项通常要比文章段数多上那么三四个,并且呈乱序分布,而且一个选错就有可能出现接二连三的连锁反应,所以不少学生对于该题型格外谨小慎微,导致严重超时。

2. 对于大部分题目来讲只要找到该段的主题句(通常是首句),然后匹配选项中与其相对应的选项即可,但随着考试难度的增加,每次总有一些特殊情况,只依靠简单粗暴的找寻定位句并不能解决问题。

为了更好更快地解决这两个问题,必须有正确的做题方法及一些化繁为简的小妙招。

一、首先排除已给出的例子选项及相应的段落,以防会造成不必要的干扰。然后浏览每个选项的意思,对于较长的选项提取关键词即可,做到心中有数,带着目的去读文章,会提高做题速度。

二、对于首句是就是主题句的段落,抓住该句的中心词,去匹配选项。但是在一些特殊情况中,段落的首句并不是主题句,主要分为以下几种情况。

1. 段落首句是问句或第二句的开头是指代词,那么第二句也极有可能成为主题句。

Many people think that ATC consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nation's airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture. The FAA realised that the airspace over the United States would at any time have many different kinds of planes, flying for many different purposes, in a variety of weather conditions, and the same kind of structure was needed to accommodate all of them.

该段第二句首词是指代词this,因此可以作为主题句的参考,incomplete part of the picture对应选项中的an oversimplified view.

2.如果句子中有出现转折词(but, however, yet等)及总结词(so, thus, therefore等),那么该句就是主题句。

On the other hand, dams, aqueducts and other kinds of infrastructurewill still have to be built, particularly in developing countries where basic human needs have not been met. But such projects must be built to higher specifications and with more accountability to local people and their environment than in the past. And even in regions where new projects seem warranted, we must find ways to meet demands with fewer resources, respecting ecological criteria and to a smaller budget.

以But引导的句子就是主题句,其关键信息为higher specifications and more accountability ,与选项中的raise standards匹配。

3.有些段落中首句既不是主题句,也没有明显的重点句,整个段落就是平行内容的列举,这时候应当找出这些内容的共同点或是列举内容的目的。

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes - often with little warning or compensation - to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all fresh water fish species are now threatened or endangered because dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

第一句作为该段的主题句显然不够充分,我们只能抓住仅有的一个关键词consequences,但这个词太过宽泛。之后的每句话都讲到了一个反面的影响,所以为并列的列举。那这五个方面的共同点就是都和环境有关,或者说这五个句子的目的是为了说明人类和其他生物的生存环境受到了破坏。因此可以与选项中的environment effects匹配。

三、不要把每个段落看成独立割裂的个体,要善于利用段落见的逻辑关系,比如并列、转折等。有时候该段中找不出或是很难概括出一个合适的主题句,可以先去看看下段的首句,有可能是承上启下的关键句,省时省事。

Yet there is a dark side to this picture: despite our progress, half of the world's population still suffers, with water services inferior to those available to the ancient Greeks and Romans. As the United Nations report on access to water reiterated in November 2001, more than one billion people lack access to clean drinking water; some two and a half billion do not have adequate sanitation services. Preventable water-related diseases kill an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 children every day, and the latest evidence suggests that we are falling behind in efforts to solve these problems.

The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health.

第一段的首句虽有dark side这个关键词,但却没有匹配的选项,后几句中的关键信息为water services inferior、clean drinking water、sanitation services、water-related diseases,这些信息的共同点就是都与health有关,但如果这个共同点比较难概括,那么可以直接根据下段的首句确定该段讲的就是human health。所以如果一个段落很难概括,不要着急,不要纠结耗时,往下看。

四、充分利用排除法,对于主题句或重点句比较明确的段落,选择的选项应该是比较确定的,可以边读文章边选择了。对于纠结的段落,不要耗时,等文章整个通读完毕,排出掉确定的选项,剩下的选择范围要小的多,相对来说也比较容易选择了。

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