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株洲雅思学习|雅思阅读考试Heading题--大揭秘

来源:未知

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时间:2021-01-31

很多同学都害怕Heading题,觉得耗时耗力,又拿不到分,那么,这种题到底怎么解?那就跟着寰宇雅思老师的思路一起来探个究竟吧:

Heading被我们称作“标题”,即给对应段落找到主旨句,而答案就是原文这个主旨句的同义改写。所以,我们的任务就转变成:如何找到段落的主旨句?

让我们先去了解一下英文段落常见的展开方式:

(一)演绎法(deduction)即开门见山,亮明观点,也就是主旨句在段首!这种是最常见的表达方式,占到70%左右。

(二)归纳法(induction)即先给细节案例,最后归纳总结,也就是主旨句在段尾!这种表达方式较少,占到20%左右。

这时,同学们可能在想,老师数学没学好吧?这两种一起才占到90%,没错,另外10%去哪了?大家可能立刻会想到:在段落中间!还有吗?还可能会在下一段(难题的出题手法)。

有了这个知识背景之后,我们就不难理解,为何我们喜欢先看段首--因为段首命中率高!但是,如果我看了段首,结果发现没有选项与之同义改写,怎么办?说明一个问题:你找错地方了!我们在找主旨句的时候,只是一种假设!我们不是作者,我们不知道他会如何安排主旨句的位置。但是我们可以根据他们的写作习惯,先去核实最常见的--段首!

说了这么多,接下来,我们来看几道真题:

(一)C6T3P2--KEY POINT TWO

The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goods. For those with high achievement needs, typically a minority in any organisation, the existence of external goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated. The next factor to be determined is whether the goods should be assigned by a manager or collectively set in conjunction with the employees. The answer to that depends on perceptions of goal acceptance and the organisation’s culture. If resistance to goals is expected, the use of participation in goal-setting should increase acceptance. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative and be negatively affected by it.

List of Headings

i.Ensure the reward system is fair

ii.Match rewards to individuals

iii.Ensure targets are realistic

iv.Link rewards to achievement

v.Encourage managers to take more responsibility

vi.Recognise changes in employees’ performance over time

vii.Establish targets and give feedback

viii.Ensure employees are suited to their jobs

这一段的主旨句在哪?有同学说,我看不懂段落结构,我不知道主旨句长什么样。针对我们解题来说,最简单的验证方式就是,先看段首(并且第二句开头无转折),我们就可以用第一句核对选项。我们看一下第一句:The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goods. 句子挺长的,我们需要快速提取重要信息。先扫一下句子框架,出现了两个that,引导宾语从句。如果从句是宾语从句,必看!所以直接提取第二个that后面的信息,看到逻辑点--并列,前后信息是all employees have specific goals and receive comments。这时就可以直接核对选项了:

所以,这一段对应的heading答案应该是vii。并列前后分别对应同义改写。

(二)C6T2P1--B

List of Headings

i.Avoiding an overcrowded centre

ii.A successful exercise in people power

iii.The benefits of working together in cities

iv.Higher incomes need not mean more cars

v.Economic arguments fail to persuade

vi.The impact of telecommunications on population distribution

vii.Increases in travelling time

viii.Responding to arguments against public transport

In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher.

按照正常思路,先看段首,提取信息travel times to work had been stable,核对选项:

我们会发现vii选项也是说times,但是选项中有明显考点趋势词increasing,而原文是stable,无法对应。这时,只能说明段首不是,那接下来怎么办?我建议大家第二步去找段落的逻辑框架,即看后面的句首,有无出现逻辑关系词,结果发现第三句开头是however,所以研读本句,继续提取重要信息,有标点,选择看第二个逗号之后,因为causing导致的意思,后面的结果更重要。最终提取出massive congestion problems,有同学说:老师,这三个单词,前两个都不认识!怎么办,幸好,后面还跟了个定语从句,修饰前面的问题,所以提取具体信息:make commuting times far higher,出现明显考点词higher,比较级和趋势词同义改写,对象一致,所以这时确定vii就是答案!

(三)C8T2P2--E

It is known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic in about 1200. As the Arctic ice pack spread southward, Norse voyages to the west were rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminess increased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weather descended on Europe between 1315 and 1319, when thousands perished in a continent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly more unpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures that culminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vital commodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constant concern. Dried cod and herring were already the staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishing boats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agricultural revolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a time of rising populations. The revolution involved intensive commercial farming and the growing of animal fodder on land not previously used for crops. The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.

看到这一段的时候,我们会发现,段首四五行,满眼都是时间,地点细节名词。这时候,我们就可以果断选择看尾巴,为什么?因为它在清晰地告诉大家:我这段是用归纳法!对段尾进行提取信息:increased productivity;self-sufficient in grain and livestock;against famine。直接核对选项:

List of Headings

iPredicting climatic changes

iiThe relevance of the Little Ice Age today

iiiHow cities contribute to climate change

ivHuman impact on the climate

vHow past climatic conditions can be determined

viA growing need for weather records.

viiA study covering a thousand years

viiiPeople have always responded to climate change

ixEnough food at last

我们会确定答案是ix,self-sufficient是一个高频考点词,直接替换enough,另外grain and livestock直接替换food,against famine抵制饥荒,依旧是一致表达。(有同学不认识famine,没有关系,我们已经提取出考点和中心名词,并且已经核对了两个点,答案就是对的)

(四)C8T4P1--F

So what are the major contributing factors in the success of maths teaching? Clearly, attitudes are important. Education is valued greatly in Japanese culture; maths is recognised as an important compulsory subject throughout schooling; and the emphasis is on hard work coupled with a focus on accuracy.

Other relevant points relate to the supportive attitude of a class towards slower pupils, the lack of competition within a class, and the positive emphasis on learning for oneself and improving one’s own standard. And the view of repetitively boring lessons and learning the facts by heart, which is sometimes quoted in relation to Japanese classes, may be unfair and unjustified. No poor maths lessons were observed. They were mainly good and one or two were inspirational.

这一段很奇怪,段首居然是问句,这时大家可以记一个点:首句设问,自问自答!所以段首问So what are the major contributing factors in the success of maths teaching? 那么这一段就会讲the major contributing factors in the success of maths teaching,我们无需往后找答案。然后直接核对选项:

List of Headings

iThe influence of Monbusho

iiHelping less successful students

iiiThe success of compulsory education

ivResearch findings concerning achievements in maths

vThe typical format of a maths lesson

viComparative expenditure on maths education

viiBackground to middle-years education in Japan

viiiThe key to Japanese successes in maths education

ixThe role of homework correction

所以,直接确定答案viii,key对应major contributing factors。

通过上述四道题,向大家展示了阅读真题中常见的,也是比较典型的heading题出题方式。最后,我们总结一下,heading在原文可能出现的位置:

(1)段首--如果第二句唔明显转折驳斥,优先提取第一句信息核对选项。

(2)转折后--如果段首不是,找句首,即段落逻辑,确定主旨句。

(3)段首纯细节,看段尾--如果段首开头是某年某月某天某人干什么,或者一眼看去,都是时间,地点类的细节,直接看段尾!

(4)首句设问,自问自答--如果段首是问句,直接看本句,问什么,本段内容就会讲什么,直接核对选项即可!

以上就是寰宇雅思老师今天和同学们分享的内容,希望对各位同学能有所帮助!再啰嗦一句,heading题的关键就是找到主旨句,如何找?--如上所述!

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